Type 2 diabetes mellitus
what is Type 2 diabetes mellitus ?
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that affects the way the body processes glucose, a main source of energy for the body's cells. Glucose is normally transported into cells with the help of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas. In T2DM, the pancreas fails to produce enough insulin or the cells of the body become resistant to insulin, leading to an increase in glucose levels in the bloodstream.
Risk factors for T2DM include obesity, physical inactivity, a family history of the disease, and age (45 years or older). Other factors that may increase the risk of T2DM include high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, and a history of gestational diabetes.
The symptoms of T2DM may be mild and go unnoticed for years. Common symptoms include frequent urination, increased thirst and hunger, fatigue, and blurred vision. In some cases, there may be no symptoms at all.
Diagnosis of T2DM is based on a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, such as the fasting plasma glucose test or the oral glucose tolerance test.
T2DM is a progressive disease that can lead to serious health problems if left untreated. Over time, high glucose levels can damage the blood vessels and nerves, leading to complications such as heart disease, stroke, kidney disease, and neuropathy (nerve damage). High glucose levels can also damage the eyes, leading to diabetic retinopathy and blindness.
Treatment of T2DM involves lifestyle changes, such as maintaining a healthy diet, regular physical activity, and achieving a healthy weight. Medications, such as metformin, sulfonylureas, and GLP-1 receptor agonists, may also be used to help control glucose levels. In some cases, insulin therapy may be necessary.
It's important for people with T2DM to monitor their glucose levels regularly and work closely with their healthcare provider to manage their condition. Regular monitoring of blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and kidney function is also important in preventing complications.
In conclusion, T2DM is a common and serious disease that affects the way the body processes glucose. It can lead to serious health problems if left untreated, but can be managed with lifestyle changes and medical treatment. People with T2DM should work closely with their healthcare provider to monitor their condition and prevent complications.