Peptic ulcer disease
what is Peptic ulcer disease ?
Peptic ulcer disease (PUD) is a common digestive disorder that affects the lining of the stomach and the upper portion of the small intestine, known as the duodenum. PUD is caused by the formation of painful sores, known as ulcers, in the lining of the digestive tract.
The primary causes of PUD are an infection with the bacterium Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen. H. pylori infects the mucous layer that protects the digestive tract and damages the cells, leading to the formation of an ulcer. On the other hand, NSAIDs cause injury to the stomach lining by reducing the production of prostaglandins, which are natural substances that protect the stomach from acid.
The symptoms of PUD include abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, heartburn, and loss of appetite. Pain from PUD is usually relieved by eating food or taking antacids and is felt in the middle or upper part of the abdomen. The pain can be dull or sharp and may last for several minutes to several hours. In severe cases, PUD can cause internal bleeding and perforation of the stomach or intestine, leading to severe infections and other complications.
Diagnosis of PUD is made through a combination of medical history, physical examination, endoscopy, biopsy, and other tests. Treatment for PUD involves the use of antacids, H2 blockers, proton pump inhibitors, antibiotics, and other medications to reduce acid production and promote healing of the ulcers. In some cases, surgery may be required to remove the damaged portion of the digestive tract.
In addition to medical treatment, lifestyle changes can also help manage PUD symptoms. These include avoiding certain foods that can trigger acid production and reflux, such as spicy and fatty foods, quitting smoking, reducing stress, and maintaining a healthy weight.
In conclusion, peptic ulcer disease is a common digestive disorder that affects the lining of the stomach and the duodenum. It is caused by an infection with H. pylori or the use of NSAIDs. The symptoms of PUD include abdominal pain, bloating, and nausea, and it can be treated with medications and lifestyle changes. If left untreated, PUD can lead to serious complications, such as internal bleeding and perforation of the digestive tract.